For paper submission, the research article must be an original copy, about 3,000-5,000 words, single-spaced, and with tables and figures. The research abstract must have 200-250 words with at least three (3) keywords or phrases.


Manuscript Preparation

  1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author/s and Affiliations/address, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations, Acknowledgement and References.
  2. Acknowledgments and References. The References should substantially consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals. Avoid citations of unpublished reports and theses. Acknowledge also the funding agency or institution that provided financial or any kind support to the completion of the study.
  3. Type the entire manuscript single-spaced on a short white bond paper (8.5 x 11”) with 0.8” margin in the left and right side, 0.9 from the top and 0.6 at the bottom” using a Times New Roman font type of 11. References, Acknowledgments, plates and legends should also be typed single-spaced. Number consecutively all pages.
  4. Leave one space before and after the major headings as well as one space before and after the sub-headings.
  5. Spell out acronyms or unfamiliar abbreviations when these are mentioned for the first time in the text.
  6. Write the scientific names of species completely with author (s) when it is first mentioned in the text and without author in succeeding references. Scientific names should be written in italics.
  7. Do not spell out numbers unless they are used to start a sentence.
  8. Use the metric system only or the International System of Units. Use abbreviations of units only beside numerals (e.g. 9 m); otherwise spell out the unit (e.g. kilometer from here). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar for compound units (e.g. 1 kg.ha/yr). Place a zero before the decimal in numbers less than one (e.g. 0.25).
  9. Titles of Tables and Captions of Figures should be as short as possible and understandable without referring to the text. Figures should consist only of simple line drawings, computer-generated graphics or good quality black and white photographs. Label of Figures and plates should be written below the image and should be as such a size so these are still legible even after reducing the size by as much as 50%.
  10. Number citations consecutively in square brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the brackets [2]. Multiple references [2], [3] are each numbered with separate brackets [1]–[3]. When citing a section in a book, please give the relevant page numbers [2]. In sentences, refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]. Do not use “Ref. [3]” or “reference [3]” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference [3] shows … .” Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list. Arrange the reference section in order of citation appearance. Use the common format, Author(s) name., year of publication., Article title, Journal name, Volume(issue), page numbers, DOI.
  11. Manuscript should be as concise the subject and research method permit, generally about 5000 words.
  12. To promote anonymous review, authors should not identify themselves directly or indirectly in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in the submission. Single authors should not use the editorial “we”.

Titles. Titles of tables are written above while title of figures and plates are written below the images.

Author(s)’ name(s). The first name, middle initial and family name are provided. The email address is written below the name followed by the department, name of institutional affiliation and country.

Abstract. An abstract of about 200-250 words should be presented immediately preceding the text. The abstract should concisely inform the reader of the manuscript’s topic, its methods, and its findings.

Keywords. The abstract must be followed by at least three (3) keywords to assist in indexing the paper and identifying qualified reviewers.

Introduction. The text of the paper should start with a section labeled “Introduction”, which provides more details about the paper’s rationale, motivation, significance, scope and limitations and the setting of the study. Both the Abstract and Introduction should be relatively nontechnical yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The manuscript’s title but neither the author’s name nor other identification designations, should appear on the Abstract page.

Pagination. All pages, including tables, appendices and references should be serially numbered.

Numbers. Spell out numbers from one to ten, except when used in tables and lists, and when used with mathematical, statistical, scientific, or technical units and quantities, such as distances, weights and measures. percentage and decimal fractions (in nontechnical copy, use the word percent in the text).

Conclusions. It should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are no repetitions of the discussions but are judgments of the results obtained

Recommendations. Provide suggestions based on the findings as well as the limitations of the study.

References. Every manuscript must include Reference section that contains ONLY those works cited within the text. Each entry should contain all information necessary or unambiguous identification of the published work. The style format is based from American Psychological Association (APA) with hanging indention of 0.2. The reference list must be arranged in order of appearance in the manuscript. There should be majority of which should come from printed and online journals.